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In total, 656 artifacts were recovered during the Phase I survey of the NASM Dulles Center Area of Potential Effect. Most of these artifacts were concentrated in the vicinity of eight sites identified during the survey. Four historic sites were identified during the Phase I survey of the Dulles Airport project area. No new prehistoric sites were identified, although four previously recorded sites were located again. Two of the eight sites were considered to contain potentially significant information requiring further investigation if they cannot be avoided. The other six sites were not considered potentially significant, and no further work is recommended for those areas.
Table 7-1 summarizes the distribution of artifact finds. Phase I shovel test pits in the central parcel yielded 368 historic, 9 modern, and 15 prehistoric artifacts. Dames & Moore archeologists identified six sites within the central parcel, four prehistoric and two historic. Figure 7-1 shows shovel test findings in the central parcel, including the location of the six sites. None of these sites is considered potentially significant; implementation of the proposal to build the NASM facility and supporting infrastructure within the proposed footprint on the central portion does not have potential to affect significant historic properties.
Summary of Artifacts Recovered From Phase I Survey
Prehistoric Site FX691
Prehistoric Site FX692
Prehistoric Site FX693
Prehistoric Site FX694
Historic Site A, FX2258
CENTRAL PARCEL Subtotal
Pump Site, FX2257
BARNSFIELD RD INTERCHANGE W. CLOVERLEAF
BARNSFIELD RD INTERCHANGE E. CLOVERLEAF
EAST PARCEL ROAD
CENTRAL PARCEL RD
House Site B, FX2259
NORTH TAXIWAY, ALTERNATIVE A Subtotal
NORTH TAXIWAY, ALTERNATIVE B
Shovel test pits in the central parcel extended to an average depth of approximately 1? feet. Soils encountered were poorly drained, and shovel test pits often filled with water. With minor variations, the stratigraphy encountered can be divided into two main types. The first type, which occurred in most of the central parcel, contains reddish silt and silty clay soils; soils in the southern portion of the area grade into decaying siltstone. A typical soil profile of this first type included four strata: 7.5YR 3/3 dark brown silt loam/humus, 7.5YR 4/4 brown silty clay loam, 5YR 5/8 yellowish red clay loam, and 2.5YR 4/6 dark red decomposed shale or siltstone. The intensity of redness varied in different shovel test pits, and some test pits only had three strata, but the soils generally graded into redder soil with a higher clay content.
The second type, a yellowish brown silt and silty clay, is found interspersed with the red soil throughout the central parcel north of transect K. North of transect X, it is the only soil type present. There the reddish soils grade into more yellowish and brown soils. Texture is similar to the majority soil type, although bedrock was generally not encountered when excavating this soil type. A typical profile for this second soil type includes two or three strata: 10YR 4/3 dark brown silt loam/humus, 10YR 5/4 yellowish brown silty clay loam, and 7.5YR 5/8 strong brown, silty clay.
In general, soils are less red and more brown or yellow as one moves from southeast to northwest. Soils along streams are darker, having more olive hues. The southeast portion of the area had been logged, and soil profiles are truncated, usually having no humus layer. Some shovel test pits, especially around the Leeton site, do not conform to any of the typical profiles. Figure 7-2 depicts representative soil profiles from five different parts of the central parcel.
Prior to the current field investigation, seven archeological sites had been identified in the area of the central parcel. These sites are: FX691, FX692, FX693, FX694, FX1558, FX1559, and FX1560. Part of the intensive field reconnaissance was to revisit and confirm the locations of the seven sites, and to assess their current condition and potential significance. Of the seven sites, four were identified again; Dames & Moore confirmed the location of prehistoric sites FX691, FX692, FX693, and FX694 (see Figure 7-1).
The four sites were investigated using shovel test pits excavated at a 25-foot interval. The area of Site 44FX691 has been logged; one prehistoric quartz waste flake was recovered. Site 692 has been disturbed by logging vehicles, as evidenced by deep, cross-cutting tire ruts left by utility vehicles. The evidence of the site included a prehistoric chipped-quartz scraper, one chert flake and one quartz flake. Two quartz flakes, a low-quality quartzite scraper, a chalcedony flake, and non-diagnostic shell fragments were found at Site 693, located on a relatively high, flat area. The chalcedony flake and quartzite scraper present an interesting contrast at Site 693. The scraper demonstrates that the site inhabitants were willing to use very low-quality material to make tools. The chalcedony flake, however, suggests that the people had access to high-quality, and possibly non-local materials. Two quartz flakes were found at Site 694; they were located on the edge of a cleared area that had been disturbed by the installation a sewer pipe.
None of these sites was considered potentially significant due to their limited resources and extensive ground disturbance. Previously identified prehistoric sites FX1558, FX1559, and FX1560 were not found during this field survey; the sites may be located outside of the Area of Potential Effect or may consist of isolated finds only.
A Dulles Airport survey conducted by Engineering Science in 1989 located the remains of the Leeton estate. The current field investigation confirmed the location of the remains of eleven structures associated with historic Leeton within the central parcel (see Figure 7-1). Previous investigations had suggested that the Leeton estate may be the eighteenth-century Turberville home that was closely tied to Sully Plantation. The Tuberville home, however, is still standing near Centreville and is occupied by the Leigh family (Gamble 1973: 43). The Leeton located in the central parcel of the airport property is a nineteenth-century farm complex that was built by the Fitzhugh family on a portion of Henry Lee?s 1725 land grant (Gamble 1973: 76). Prior to the Civil War, the farm complex was owned by Abner Pierce, a farmer from New York. Later owners named this estate Leeton (Gamble 1973: 133-134).
The Leeton site is located on the middle of the eastern edge of the Central Parcel. Portions of the nineteenth-century structures are situated in the project area, including bulldozed bricks from one barn and a mound from another barn, a basement depression and a well house (Figures 7-3 and 7-4 are photographs depicting the Leeton site area within the footprint of the central parcel). Background research indicates that this large farm was dismantled for salvage in 1960 when Dulles Airport was constructed. The former Leeton house, possibly the site of additional Leeton remains, lies outside of the foot-print of the proposed undertaking.
A total of 236 artifacts was recovered from 15 shovel test pits in the area of the Leeton site; artifacts visible on the surface included a ceramic drain pipe, bull-dozed bricks, and other architectural remains. Artifacts recovered from this site date from the early-nineteenth century to the present. Only two diagnostics (pearlware ceramics) date to the early nineteenth century part of the sequence.
The remaining artifact types include a large number of bricks and both wire and cut nails. A limited amount of glass, whiteware, pearlware, glazed red earthenware, oyster shell, plastic, wood, and other building materials was also found. The shovel test pits in this area produced no prehistoric artifacts. Artifacts recovered confirm the early nineteenth century through 1960 occupation date for Leeton suggested by written sources.
Walkover reconnaissance indicates that the entire farm complex was substantially upgraded (including the addition of a below-ground, concrete swimming pool) throughout the twentieth century, a process that appears to have impacted the remains of earlier occupations. The stratigraphy around the cistern and well house indicate recent disturbance. The Leeton site is not believed to be significant because it lacks integrity and is not anticipated to provide significant information about history.
Archeologists located Historic Site A during the present survey. Situated in the northeast corner of the central parcel (see Figure 7-1), the area is covered with young deciduous trees. A wetland is located south of the site area. The site has two components: an apparent domestic area and a field-stone lined well. The domestic area is located in a clearing on a small rise above the wetland; it is covered with shrubs and saplings. Numerous historic and modern artifacts are scattered on the ground surface of the cleared area. A garden of cultivated flowers is intact, confirming that the area was only recently abandoned (Figure 7-5). The field-stone lined well is located about sixty feet west of and down hill from the clearing (Figure 7-6). The well is about five feet in diameter and situated next to two large oak trees. An abandoned road bed leads from Historic Site A west to another historic site (Historic Site B) in the area initially proposed for the north taxiway.
One hundred and eight historic and modern artifacts were recovered from two shovel test pits and limited surface collection of the area around Historic Site A. In order of frequency, artifacts recovered from subsurface testing include brown, clear, bright green, blue and amethyst-colored bottle glass, milk glass, wire nails, miscellaneous rusted metal, window and plate glass, brick, hard white earthenware, porcelain, and whiteware. Surface artifacts include bricks, whiteware, pieces of a porcelain plate with a floral gold-leaf decoration on the rim, porcelain tea cups, molded milk glass, a decorative amethyst-colored glass ash tray, and parts of broken glass bottles. No prehistoric artifacts were recovered from this area.
Historic Site A seems to date from the early twentieth century. The area around the well yielded artifacts similar to those recovered from the cleared area. Although Historic Site A retains integrity, it does not appear to be potentially eligible for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places due to its relatively recent date; it is not likely to yield important information on area history.
Eighty-one historic, modern, prehistoric and organic artifacts were recovered from the central parcel outside of the six sites. Isolated finds include 3 pieces of quartzite and quartz debitage, 2 heat-altered pebbles, 5 sherds of bottle glass, 4 sherds of window glass, 4 sherds of whiteware, 1 sherd delftware, 2 nails, 5 pieces of rusted metal, 5 modern artifacts, 1 piece of slag, and numerous brick, mortar and shell fragments. Additional shovel test pits (radial tests) were excavated at a 25-foot interval around shovel tests that contained cultural material. This additional excavation around prehistoric artifacts failed to produce additional prehistoric material. All but eight of the isolated historic artifacts were recovered downstream from the Leeton site or from a historic fence line near Leeton. A small delftware sherd was recovered from a radial test pit in the vicinity of Site 44FX693. A large number of shovel test pits contained oyster or clam shell fragments, but no cultural material. The shell may have been introduced to enrich the soil for farming.
The Barnsfield Road/Route 28 interchange will provide visitor access to the NASM from Route 28 (Sully Road). For the purposes of the Phase I archeological survey, the interchange was divided into the west cloverleaf and the east cloverleaf. The west cloverleaf is in the NASM?s east parcel. The east cloverleaf is located adjacent to the airport property on land that is currently privately owned. One potentially significant site (the Pump Site) dating from the end of the eighteenth century through the nineteenth century was identified in the southwest corner of the interchange. (Phase II investigations of the site are reported in Chapter 8.) Figure 7-7 shows the shovel test findings and the location of the site in the interchange area.
Similar soils were identified in both parts of the interchange. A typical profile includes two strata, plus the humus on decaying shale or siltstone: 7.5YR 2.5/2 very dark brown silt loam/humus, 7.5YR 4/4 brown silt loam, and 7.5YR 5/8 strong brown silty clay loam on decomposed siltstone. Soils in areas saturated with water appear gleyed (lightened by the presence of groundwater); variations include redder soils and those with a higher sand content. Much of the interchange area is poorly drained and shovel test pits were often very moist or filled with water. Typical soil profiles from the interchange area are shown in Figure 7-8.
The west cloverleaf is planted in rows of pines; the far western part of the cloverleaf is in an open field with short, mowed grass. Groundwater also includes poison ivy and briars. A large artificial mound is located in the middle of the west cloverleaf area, probably created during construction of Route 28. Shovel test pits in the west cloverleaf were excavated to an average depth of 1.2 feet, typically terminating with decomposed siltstone, clayey subsoil with siltstone inclusions, or standing water.
Artifacts recovered from the west cloverleaf area include one heat-altered rock, three quartz flakes, one broken Archaic-Period projectile point, two sherds of earthenware with a black lead glaze that resembles eighteenth-century Buckley ceramics, a quartz crystal, and a piece of window glass. Additional shovel test pits were excavated on a close grid around shovel test pits containing prehistoric material; these pits failed to produce additional prehistoric artifacts. Most artifacts recovered from the west cloverleaf were concentrated in the area of a multi-component site, named the Pump Site because of the presence of a late-nineteenth to early-twentieth century water pump.
The Pump Site is located in the southwest quadrant of the west cloverleaf (see Figure 7-7). The site was identified on the basis of subsurface artifacts recovered from shovel test pits, vegetation different from the surrounding area, and the presence of a late-nineteenth to early-twentieth century water pump (Figure 7-9). The legend E.M. Myers & Bro. is molded into the pump handle. A row of cedar trees marks a possible road bed that passes from north to south past the pump; another remnant road runs west from the pump toward the east parcel. Vegetation on the pump site includes cedar trees, wild rose, and other shrubs and deciduous trees; the loblolly pines planted in rows on the other portions of the west cloverleaf are not found in the area of the Pump Site (Figure 7-10).
A total of 63 historic artifacts was recovered from shovel tests in the area around the Pump Site. No material was visible on the surface. After the initial shovel test pits were excavated at a 75-foot interval, 32 additional test pits were excavated at a 25-foot interval across the area where historic and prehistoric artifacts were found. These additional tests helped define the site boundary and the areas with the highest artifact concentrations. About half of the additional test pits were also positive (contained artifacts). Twelve shovel test pits were excavated outside of the footprint of the west cloverleaf in order to determine if the Pump Site extended beyond the boundary of the project area. Only one of these test pits contained cultural material; this positive pit was in the area of the remnant road bed that passes the pump. The Pump Site is contained entirely within the boundary of the proposed interchange area.
Many varieties of ceramics are present in the area (many of which pre-date the pump). They include pale-bodied slipware (18th century), pearlware (1775-1830), whiteware (1805-present), and red ware (utilitarian wares produced from the Colonial Period ). A kaolin pipe bowl fragment was found. Numerous pieces of clear, amber, amethyst, and dark green-colored bottle and vessel glass were also found. The site included few architectural artifacts; those found include wire and unidentifiable nails, and window glass. A clear quartz crystal was also recovered at the pump site; it appears to have been worked at one end.
Prehistoric artifacts from the Pump Site include four quartz flakes and a piece of heat-altered quartz. The quartz crystal may be an artifact of historic or prehistoric age.
Based on the artifacts recovered, the Pump Site appears to date from the late-eighteenth century to the end of the nineteenth century, with a possible prehistoric component. The largest collection of artifacts dates to the Early National (1789 to 1830) and Antebellum (1830 to 1860) periods. The site is located across Route 28 from and just north of Sully Plantation, a late-eighteenth century historic site on the National Register of Historic Places. The Pump Site, however, is not on land that was owned by the Lee family who built Sully, but on a tract of land that was granted to George Turberville in 1727. The Turberville and Lee families owned these tracts of land throughout the eighteenth century.
As a result of Phase I investigation, the Pump Site was judged to be potentially eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion D (as a property that has yielded or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history). This assessment was based primarily on the proximity of the Pump Site to Sully Plantation, and the association (discussed in Section 4) between the families of Richard Bland Lee (who built Sully) and George Richard Lee Tuberville (who owned portions of the project area in historic times). The Phase II evaluation was conducted at the Pump Site (Section 8) to explore the possible connection of the archeological site to the Lee-Tuberville occupation of the area, to examine the boundaries and subsurface contents of the site and to evaluate its integrity and its potential to contribute important information to area history or prehistory.
The east cloverleaf area is fairly flat, with a gentle upward slope near the eastern edge. Ground cover consists of grasses, small scrub pines and junipers; many wetland areas are present. A large portion of the area has been disturbed as the result of construction of various utility lines and Route 28. Of the 193 observation points in the east cloverleaf, only 80 were excavated; the remainder were either in jurisdictional wetlands or disturbed. Soil profiles encountered in the area are very similar to those found in the west cloverleaf. Shovel test pits were excavated to an average depth of 1.5 feet. Archeologists recovered several isolated finds including one bone, four sherds of glass (at least two of which are modern), one whiteware fragment, one piece of a composite metal button, one piece of leather (probably modern), and five pieces of charcoal. No sites were identified.
Planning for NASM includes two roads--the East Parcel Road and the Central Parcel Road--to allow visitor access to the museum. The East Parcel Road (Figure 7-11) will connect the proposed interchange at Route 28 north of Barnsfield Road with the north end of the parking lot east of the museum. The Central Parcel Road will provide access to the parking lot from the south at Route 50; this road may not be open to the public, but rather may be primarily for emergency vehicle use. The Jeep Road south of the Central Parcel will provide security access to the museum area from a perimeter gravel access road (Figure 7-12). An area was investigated along the western edge of the Central Parcel for construction of the proposed Utility Corridor. No archeological sites were identified along these three access roads or the Utility Corridor (Figure 7-12). Two alternative areas were investigated as potential locations for the North Taxiway that will connect the NASM Center to Dulles Airport to provide access for aircraft. One potentially significant historic site was identified near the southern end of the first alternative for the North Taxiway (Figure 7-13).
The East Parcel Road will connect the proposed cloverleaf access on Sully Road (Route 28) to the Museum building in the Central Parcel. The road leads west from the west cloverleaf across a mown field to an area of young deciduous trees. Figure 7-11 shows the locations of the shovel test pits dug in the area of the proposed access route.
Stratigraphy along the east parcel road is similar to that found in the area of the interchange. A typical soil profile includes three strata: 7.5YR 3/2 dark brown silt loam/root mat, followed by 7.5YR 4/4 brown silty clay loam, and 5YR 4/8 yellowish red clay loam with siltstone inclusions. Test pits further west in the deciduous woods became more yellow in color, and are similar to the central parcel in this area. A typical soil profile in that area includes 10YR 2/2 very dark brown/Humus, followed by 10YR 5/3 brown silt loam, 10YR 5/6 yellowish brown silty clay loam, and 10YR 5/8 yellowish brown compact silty clay. Typical soil profiles from the area of the access routes are shown in Figure 7-14.
Forty-eight artifacts were recovered from 56 shovel test pits along the east parcel road; these artifacts are all early to mid-twentieth century in date and include Ball mason jars and a Fleischman's bottle. No sites were identified, but artifacts were most common in two areas. One small concentration is located in the mown field, near a patch of domesticated flowers. An old road bed leads from the water pump located in the west cloverleaf toward this artifact cluster, but cannot be followed across the field. The other area of artifacts is situated at the end of the proposed road, near the central parcel in the vicinity of Historic Site A. Artifacts found along the East Parcel Road are similar in type and date to those found at Historic Site A in the central parcel. The two find areas appear to be small, isolated dump locations.
The Central Parcel Road is in the southern portion of the Central Parcel area, in a young mixed woods of coniferous and deciduous trees. The proposed road, which will provide emergency vehicle access to the museum from Route 50, crosses numerous streams, including the Cain Branch. Figure 7-12 shows the shovel test pits excavated in this area and the current conditions of the Central Parcel road.
Soils along the Central Parcel road are generally similar to those found in the rest of the Smithsonian project area. A typical profile includes three strata: 10YR 3/2 very dark grey silt loam/humus, 10YR 5/4 yellowish brown silt loam, and 7.5YR 4/6 strong brown silty clay (see Figure 7-14).
The road runs through an area of modern (c. 1940-1960) trash and bottle piles, and modern house foundations. Only five artifacts were recovered below the surface from shovel test pits. These artifacts include four pieces of glass probably associated with the modern sites, and one possible prehistoric quartz decortification flake. No historic or prehistoric sites were identified along the Central Parcel road.
The Jeep Road will connect the southern airport property perimeter road to the museum facility. The road is in the southern portion of the Central Parcel, and crosses the Central Parcel Road (see Figure 7-12). Vegetation along the route for the Jeep Road includes young deciduous trees and a moderately dense understory of poison ivy, poison oak, blackberry and other plants. Soils along the Jeep Road are generally similar to those found along the Central Parcel Road. No isolated artifacts or sites were found along the Jeep Road.
The Utility Corridor runs along the western edge of the project area lying both within the main survey grid (see Figure 7-1) and extending to the south of it. The portion of the Utility Corridor that extends south of the Cain Branch was surveyed as a separate entity (see Figure 7-12). The Southern Corridor is covered with loblolly pines planted in rows, and extends over an area of rolling hills. Test pits along the Southern Corridor varied in depth depending on the slope of the land. Soil profiles correspond to those seen in the central parcel, and include a thin, dark humus layer, followed by 7.5YR 4/4 brown silty clay loam, and either 5YR 5/8 yellowish red, or 7.5YR 5/8 strong brown silty clay.
One quartz biface was found in a test pit on a slope above the Cain Branch. The shovel test pit also included fifteen oyster shells and shell fragments. Four additional shovel tests excavated 25 feet in each direction from where the biface was found failed to produce additional cultural material. The biface and shell seem to represent a very limited area.
The North Taxiway will connect the Museum to the airport so that aircraft can be transported to and from the facility. Two alternative locations for the North Taxiway were considered. Alternative A stretches from the edge of existing runway 36R to the northern boundary of the Central Parcel, around shovel test pit JJ-11 (see Figure 7-1). Most of the north taxiway is in an open field; the remainder is in a young deciduous forest with occasional large trees. The taxiway crosses one wetland area fed by a spring. The survey identified Historic Site B, a potentially significant historic site on the right-of-way for Alternative A of the proposed taxiway. Figure 7-13 depicts the location of shovel tests on the North Taxiway and the location of Historic Site B.
Test pits along the north taxiway typically extended to a depth of 1.4 feet, and were similar to those excavated in the central parcel. A typical profile from the north taxiway (south of the paved access road) includes four strata: 10YR 2/2 very dark brown silt loam/humus, followed by 10YR 4/4 dark yellowish brown silt loam, 7.5YR 5/6 strong brown silty clay loam, and 5YR 5/6 yellowish red silty clay with siltstone inclusions. The area between the existing runway and the existing paved access road at the northern-most end of the taxiway has been disturbed by landscaping. The area was evidently graded and stabilized to provide a safe surface in case of any mishap during take off or landing. Soil profiles from this area included multiple shallow layers of similar soils separated by large pieces of bedrock siltstone (see Figure 7-14).
Isolated finds along the north taxiway included three historic artifacts and one modern artifact; no prehistoric artifacts were found. The majority of the artifacts from the North Taxiway were located in the vicinity of a historic house site near the southern terminus of the Taxiway, referred to as Historic Site B (44FX2259).
Archeologists identified Historic Site B near the southern end of the North Taxiway adjacent to the boundary between the Taxiway and the central parcel. The site includes a deep square depression, with a possible stone foundation extending on its north side (Figure 7-15). A long ditch runs east-west and increases in depth closer to the square depression. A field-stone lined well measuring approximately eight feet in diameter is located adjacent to and west of the depression, and north of the ditch (Figure 7-16). A large oak tree in the area and naturalized daffodils and yucca are evidence of landscaping activities of the site?s former occupants. The area around the site is vegetated with young deciduous trees. An abandoned road bed runs from Historic Site B southeast to Historic Site A in the central parcel.
Artifacts were recovered from Historic Site B primarily through limited surface collection; only one shovel test pit on the North Taxiway fell in the area of this site. Additional shovel test pits were not necessary to complete the Phase I fieldwork because of the large variety and amount of artifacts on the surface, and the presence of a well and basement feature. Artifacts collected represent a long span of time, from the eighteenth century to around the mid-twentieth century, although most date from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. Artifacts collected include blown and molded aqua-colored, clear, blue-tinted, and amethyst-colored bottles, as well as milk glass, ironstone, whiteware, green juice glasses, mason jars, brick fragments, wire, and cut nails. In addition to the artifacts collected, cooking pots, bed springs, numerous bottles, a galvanized tub, drinking glasses, mason jars, and a variety of both modern and earlier historic ceramics were seen on the surface but not collected; they were described in field notes. No prehistoric artifacts were recovered from this area.
Because Historic Site B may include an eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century component, it potentially may yield important information about area history. The NASM Dulles Center site plan was redesigned to move the taxiway to the west, thereby avoiding effects to Historic Site B. However, if the area may be affected by project activities in the future, the site will need to be evaluated (Phase II) to determine the areal extent, depth and potential significance of the site. Phase II may involve additional archival research, shovel test pits excavated on a closer grid, and possibly, 5 by 5 foot excavation units. If the site is determined to be significant, mitigation measures will need to be followed prior to the initiation of ground-disturbing activities.
A second alternative location for the North Taxiway is to the west of the first location considered and tested. This alternative is under consideration because it has less potential to affect wetlands, as well as increased potential to avoid impacts to Historic Site B. Alternative B initially follows the same route as Alternative A, but where the first route turns south, Alternative B continues in a southwest direction (see Figure 7-13). The soil profiles recorded along the second alternative for the taxiway closely resemble soil profiles found on the first alternative. Only two historic artifacts (a piece of iron and a part of a stoneware jug) were found along Alternative B of the North Taxiway. The stoneware was found in a dry stream bed directly west of Historic Site B; no other evidence of the site was located along the second route. If Alternative B is chosen as the preferred route for the taxiway, Historic Site B will not be affected.
During the Phase I archeological survey of the NASM Area of Potential Effect, eight sites (four historic and four prehistoric), and numerous isolated artifacts were identified. The results of the survey conformed to our predictive model for what would be found in the area. Prehistoric sites were found in the vicinity of the Cain Branch, and not in the interior portions of the project area more distant from water. Historic sites, on the other hand, were found in a variety of settings. Historic sites all have a domestic function, and possible subsistence function associated with agriculture. They do not represent a nucleated village or town.
Six of the eight sites do not appear to be significant. The Pump Site and Historic Site B were determined to be potentially significant and required additional investigation if they could not be avoided. These recommendations are summarized on a site-by-site basis. Section 8 presents the results of the Phase II evaluation of the Pump Site. Specific recommendations are discussed in Section 9 of this report.
|Introduction||Chap. 2: Historic Preservation Compliance|
|Chap. 3: Project Area Description||Chap. 4: Background Research|
|Chap. 5: Field Investigations||Chap. 6: Laboratory Investigations|
|Chap. 7: Archeological Findings of Phase I Survey||Chap. 8: Archeological Findings of Phase II Survey|
|Chap. 9: Summary and Recommendations||Chap. 10: Bibliography|
|Related Archaeology Websites|